Mary Stuart, James I of England, James V of Scotland, and Oliver Cromwell bronze plaque in Burntisland

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Kings, Queens & Cromwell

Saint Margaret, Queen of Scotland Revered wife of King Malcolm III (reigned 1058-93). Canonised in 1250. According to tradition, her relics (skull and hair) were hidden at Rossend Castle from c1565 to c1580 to prevent their destruction at the Reformation.
King Alexander III (Reigned 1249-86) Killed in an accident near Kingswood, brining to an end Scotland's 'Golden Age'. Commemorated by his memorial on the road to Kinghorn.
King James V (Reigned 1513-42) Saw the potential of Burntisland harbour and developed it - the catalyst for the town we know today. Granted Royal Burgh status to Burntisland in 1541.
Mary, Queen of Scots (Reigned 1542-67) Frequent visitor to Burntisland, staying at Rossend Castle - the scene of her notorious attempted seduction by the French poet, Pierre de Châtelard.
King James VI (Reigned 1567-1625) Proposed a new version of the Bible at the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland held at Burntisland in 1601. Confirmed Burntisland's status as a Royal Burgh.
King Charles I (Reigned 1625-49) Lost his potentially priceless treasure when his baggage ferry sank off Burntisland in 1633.
Oliver Cromwell (Lord Protector of England 1653-58) His forces occupied Burntisland from 1651 to 1660, subjecting the inhabitants to a period of great tyranny and oppression.
Kings, Queens & Cromwell

Saint Margaret, Queen of Scotland Revered wife of King Malcolm III (reigned 1058-93). Canonised in 1250. According to tradition, her relics (skull and hair) were hidden at Rossend Castle from c1565 to c1580 to prevent their destruction at the Reformation.
King Alexander III (Reigned 1249-86) Killed in an accident near Kingswood, brining to an end Scotland's 'Golden Age'. Commemorated by his memorial on the road to Kinghorn.
King James V (Reigned 1513-42) Saw the potential of Burntisland harbour and developed it - the catalyst for the town we know today. Granted Royal Burgh status to Burntisland in 1541.
Mary, Queen of Scots (Reigned 1542-67) Frequent visitor to Burntisland, staying at Rossend Castle - the scene of her notorious attempted seduction by the French poet, Pierre de Châtelard.
King James VI (Reigned 1567-1625) Proposed a new version of the Bible at the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland held at Burntisland in 1601. Confirmed Burntisland's status as a Royal Burgh.
King Charles I (Reigned 1625-49) Lost his potentially priceless treasure when his baggage ferry sank off Burntisland in 1633.
Oliver Cromwell (Lord Protector of England 1653-58) His forces occupied Burntisland from 1651 to 1660, subjecting the inhabitants to a period of great tyranny and oppression.

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.Born into the middle gentry, Cromwell was relatively obscure for the first 40 years of his life. After undergoing a religious conversion in the 1630s, he became an independent puritan, taking a generally (but not completely) tolerant view towards the many Protestant sects of his period. An intensely religious man—a self-styled Puritan Moses—he fervently believed that God was guiding his victories.He was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640–49) Parliaments. He entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians. Nicknamed "Old Ironsides", he was quickly promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to become one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role in the defeat of the royalist forces.Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, and, as a member of the Rump Parliament (1649–53), he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England. He was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–50. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country – bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. During this period a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics (a significant minority in England and Scotland but the vast majority in Ireland), and a substantial amount of their land was confiscated. Cromwell also led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651.On 20 April 1653 he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as the Barebones Parliament, before being invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland from 16 December 1653.As a ruler he executed an aggressive and effective foreign policy. After his death from natural causes in 1658 he was buried in Westminster Abbey, but after the Royalists returned to power in 1660 they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered a regicidal dictator by historians such as David Hume, a military dictator by Winston Churchill, but a hero of liberty by Thomas Carlyle and Samuel Rawson Gardiner. In a 2002 BBC poll in Britain, Cromwell was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time. However, his measures against Catholics in Scotland and Ireland have been characterised as genocidal or near-genocidal, and in Ireland his record is harshly criticised.

Source: dbpedia

James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciary, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union.He succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother Mary, Queen of Scots, was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue. He continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known as the Jacobean era after him, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58. After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England (the largest of the three realms) from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, and styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for both England and Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began.At 57 years and 246 days, his reign in Scotland was longer than any of his predecessors. He achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, and Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture. James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie (1597), True Law of Free Monarchies (1598), and Basilikon Doron (1599). He sponsored the translation of the Bible that was named after him: the Authorised King James Version. Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character ever since. Since the latter half of the twentieth century, however, historians have revised James's reputation and have treated him as a serious and thoughtful monarch.

Source: dbpedia

Mary, Queen of Scots (7/8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, was queen regnant of Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567 and queen consort of France from 10 July 1559 to 5 December 1560.Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V of Scotland, was 6 days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, and in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death on 5 December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his residence was destroyed by an explosion, and Darnley was found murdered in the garden.James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. On 24 July 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of James, her one-year-old son by Darnley. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary had previously claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own and was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in a number of castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth, and was subsequently executed.

Source: dbpedia

James V (10 April 1512 – 14 December 1542) was King of Scots from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss. His only surviving legitimate child, Mary, succeeded him to the throne when she was just six days old.

Source: dbpedia

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