Henry John Carter, FRS (18 August 1813 – 4 May 1895) was a surgeon working in Bombay, India, who carried out work in geology and zoology. He worked as an army surgeon in Bombay from 1859 on Her Majesty's Indian Service, Bombay Establishment. He edited a collection of geological papers on Western India, including a summary of the geology of India, which was published in 1857. Many items of his published work appeared in the journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, and in the Annals of Natural History. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1859.