Henry Taylor (17 March 1885 – 28 February 1951) was an English freestyle swimmer who competed in the 1906 Summer Olympics, in the 1908 Summer Olympics, in the 1912 Summer Olympics, and in the 1920 Summer Olympics representing Great Britain. He served in the Royal Navy during the First World War, and continued to swim competitively until 1926. Taylor's fortunes went downhill after he retired and he died penniless. His record of three gold medals at one Olympic Games – the most by any Briton – stood for 100 years until it was equalled by cyclist Chris Hoy in 2008. Along with American Mel Sheppard, he was the most successful athlete at the 1908 Olympics.