William Sands Cox (1802, Birmingham – 23 December 1875, Kenilworth) was a surgeon in Birmingham, England. He founded Birmingham's first medical school in 1825 as a residential Anglican-based college in Temple Row, where a blue plaque commemorates him on the House of Fraser department store, and in Brittle Street (now obliterated by Snow Hill Station). Cox went on to found the Queen's Hospital in Bath Row (Drury & Bateman, opened 1841) as a practical resource for his medical students.The Medical School became the Birmingham Royal School of Medicine in 1836 and then the Queen's College in 1843 by Royal Charter. Cox's ambition was for the college to teach arts, law, engineering, architecture and general science as well as medicine, surgery and theology. However, after a major split in the organisation, the non-theological departments moved off into Mason Science College which later became the University of Birmingham leaving the name Queen's College as a theological institution.The University of Birmingham Special Collections department holds some of Cox's personal papers.